There is real pressure on the city to reduce and stabilize demand. To resolve the matter a number of measures were taken, these include: the replacement of water mains across the city, pressure management aimed at reducing night time pressures, active and passive leakage controls, continuous monitoring of reservoirs and towers, and other infrastructure upgrades.
At a capital cost of US$98,000,000, funded from a combination of operating and capital expenditure, the project achieved numerous outcomes. In its first 12 months, for example, the replacement program led to a 77 percent reduction in pipe bursts and improvements to the level of leakage repairs resulted in about 10,000,000m3/year in water savings. Many more are detailed in the full case study download.